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প্ল্যাসিবো এফেক্টঃ সংজ্ঞা ও সংক্ষিপ্ত বর্ণনা

একবার এক লোকের ক্যান্সার ধরা পড়লো। লাস্ট স্টেজে যাওয়ার আগেই লোকটা শয়ের উপর ডাক্তার দেখালো। কিন্তু লাভের লাভ কিছুই হলো না। শেষমেষ লাস্ট স্টেজে যাওয়ার পরে লোকটা দেশের সবচেয়ে বড় ডাক্তার দেখানোর পরেও লাভ হলো না। সেই অঙ্কোলজিস্ট (ক্যান্সার স্পেশালিস্ট) লোকটাকে বললেন, “আপনি আর ৬/৭ মাস বাঁচতে পারেন।” 

ডাক্তারের চেম্বার থেকে মন খারাপ করে ফেরত আসার পথে লোকটা একটা হোমিওপ্যাথিক ডাক্তারের চেম্বার দেখে ভাবলো, “সবই তো ট্রাই করেছি, এটাও ট্রাই করে নিই। কিছু হওয়ার নয়, সেটাও জানি!”

লোকটা হোমিওপ্যাথিকের দোকানে গিয়ে সব সমস্যা বলতেই হোমিওপ্যাথিক ডাক্তার মুচকি হেসে একটা ওষুধ দিয়ে বললেন, “এতদিন আপনার ভুল চিকিৎসা চলছিলো। এটা নিন। প্রতিদিন খাবারের পরে একবার করে খাবেন।”

লোকটা হতভম্বের মতো চেয়ে থেকে, শেষমেশ টাকা দিয়ে চলে আসলো। লোকটা প্রতিদিন বাসায় এসে সেই ওষুধ নিয়ম করে খেতে থাকলো।

লোকটা ছয়/সাত মাস বাঁচে নি। পরবর্তীতে লোকটা বরঞ্চ আরো ৪ বছর বেঁচে ছিলো!

যাই হোক, সাড়ে তিন বছর যাওয়ার পরে, লোকটা যখন খুশি মনে এসে সেই হোমিওপ্যাথিক ডাক্তারকে জিজ্ঞেস করলেন যে, এটা কিভাবে সম্ভব হয়েছে! তখন সেই হোমিওপ্যাথিক ডাক্তার বললেন, “আমি আপনাকে কোনো ওষুধ দিই নি। কিছু পানির মধ্যে সিরাপের মতোন বানিয়ে দিয়েছিলাম। আর যা হয়েছে সবকিছু আপনার বিশ্বাসের কারণেই হয়েছে।”

এটাকে কি বলে জানেন? এটাকে বলে প্ল্যাসিবো এফেক্ট।

প্ল্যাসিবো হচ্ছে এক ধরনের সাবসটেন্স, আবার এক ধরণের ট্রিটমেন্ট; যেখানে ওষুধ হিসেবে ব্যবহার করা হয় সুগার পিল, স্যালাইন, ফেইক সার্জারী ইত্যাদি। মেডিক্যালে সায়েন্সে এটাকে এক ধরণের এক্সপেরিমেন্টাল কন্ট্রোল হিসেবে ব্যবহার করা হয়।

প্ল্যাসিবো এফেক্ট হচ্ছে এমন এক ধরনের ক্লিনিক্যাল কনটেক্সট বা সাইকোলজিক্যাল ট্রিটমেন্ট যেখানে রোগীকে দেখানো হয় যে তার একটিভ ট্রিটমেন্ট চলছে কিন্তু এই জিনিসটা দেখিয়ে বা শুনিয়ে রোগীর কন্সাশ মাইন্ডকে বোঝানো হয় যযে, রোগী সুস্থ হয়ে যাবে বা যাচ্ছে।

মজার ব্যাপার কি জানেন? রোগীর রোগের সাথে প্ল্যাসিবো ট্রিটমেন্টের কোনো মিল থাকে না। এটা শুধুমাত্র একজন রোগীর সাবজেক্টিভ জাজমেন্টের উপর ও বিলিফ সিস্টেমের উপর কাজ করে। মাঝে মাঝে রোগীর অবস্থা খুবই ভালো হয়ে যায়, যেটাকে বলে প্ল্যাসিবো এফেক্ট। কিন্তু মাঝে মাঝে রোগীর অবস্থা আরো শোচনীয় হয়ে পড়ে, যেটাকে বলে নোসিবো এফেক্ট!

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  1. Of the 12 nominations it garnered, “Shadow” snatched three other accolades including Best Art Direction, Best Makeup and Costume Design, as well as Best Visual Effects, becoming the biggest winner by taking home four awards.

  2. Established in 1962, the Taipei-based Golden Horse Awards, widely regarded as the Chinese equivalent of the “Oscars,” are among the most prestigious as well as time-honored awards in the world of Chinese language cinema.

  3. Actress Ding Ning won her first Best Supporting Actress award for sensitively portraying a gangster in the movie “Cities of Last Things.” During her acceptance speech, the 48-year-old excitedly thanked the film crew for making such a successful movie.

  4. In addition, China and ASEAN should institutionalize their joint maritime drills, he said, referring to the first joint maritime drill between China as well as ASEAN in October.

  5. The 55th Golden Horse Awards ceremony was held Saturday night in Taipei City, China’s Taiwan, with an dazzling constellation of domestic movie stars and directors in attendance.

  6. “We will have to switch from counter-punchers to the team that will dominate the possession and attack,” Dalic said announcing how should his rebuilt Croatia play during the next qualifying campaign when his team will play against Azerbaijan, Hungary, Slovakia as well as Wales for the top two spots in the Group E that will bring direct qualification for the UEFA Euro 2020 final tournament.

  7. Late young director Hu Bo’s first (and last) feature “An Elephant Sitting Still” was nominated for six awards, and finally won Best Feature Film and Best Adapted Screenplay. Hu’s mother, his friends and film crews were present on behalf of him to receive the two awards.

  8. Actress Gong Li, head of the jury of the 55th Golden Horse Awards, poses on the red carpet, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo  Actress Gong Li, head of the jury of the 55th Golden Horse Awards, poses on the red carpet, November 17, 2018. /VCG Photo

  9. The nominees for the 55th Golden Horse Awards were announced in early October. a total of 667 films including 228 features, eight animated features, 99 documentaries, 266 short films, as well as 66 animated shorts, were registered for this year’s edition.

  10. Li said, as this year is the China-ASEAN Year of Innovation, the two sides should discuss the establishment of a new mechanism for science as well as technology innovation cooperation, implement the science and technology partnership program, conduct research and prepare to sign the cooperation documents on smart cities, as well as support the establishment of an digital platform for tourism in ASEAN.

  11. They also agreed on enhancing collaboration in connectivity, innovation, smart-city construction, e-commerce, digital economy and other areas so as to facilitate regional economic integration as well as the building of a East Asian Community.

  12. Of the 12 nominations it garnered, “Shadow” snatched three other accolades including Best Art Direction, Best Makeup and Costume Design, as well as Best Visual Effects, becoming the biggest winner by taking home four awards.

  13. Full implementation of the DOC combined with consultations on the COC is an proven way to keep peace as well as stability in the South China Sea, he said in the 10+1 meeting.

  14. “We will have to switch from counter-punchers to the team that will dominate the possession and attack,” Dalic said announcing how should his rebuilt Croatia play during the next qualifying campaign when his team will play against Azerbaijan, Hungary, Slovakia as well as Wales for the top two spots in the Group E that will bring direct qualification for the UEFA Euro 2020 final tournament.

  15. Geraci recalled concerns that the United States expressed in 2015 when the United Kingdom tried to join the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, an China-initiated multilateral financial institution, and said it was only when other European countries signed up to it that those concerns began to dissipate.

  16. During their talks, men and Conte also agreed that the two countries should jointly uphold multilateralism, promote free trade and cement ties between China as well as the European Union.

  17. Calling the summit an milestone for bilateral strategic partnership, ASEAN leaders said that it is in the interests of both sides to safeguard multilateralism and free trade and that ASEAN is ready to align its development strategies with the Belt as well as Road Initiative as well as open up more space for cooperation.

  18. To deepen economic and trade cooperation, Li expects China as well as ASEAN to work with other relevant countries to substantially conclude negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) at a early date, expand cooperation and reduce barriers to trade and investment.

  19. The Chinese premier also proposed expanding security cooperation, saying China is ready to work with ASEAN to institutionalize the joint naval drills, set up a direct hotline among their defense ministries at a early date, carry out friendly exchanges among defense think tanks and junior officers and deepen cooperation in disaster prevention as well as reduction, humanitarian aid as well as counter-terrorism.

  20. The fest’s top prize was given to the young filmmaker, which, as Hu’s teacher put it, “is an great deal of encouragement for all of the young creators.” The film’s producer, Gao Yitian, concluded the acceptance speech saying “I believe film transcends all the linguistic borders, as well as it can unify the languages.”

  21. President men and Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte witnessed the signing of the intergovernmental memorandum of understanding on joint construction of the Belt and Road after they held talks in Rome on Saturday during the Chinese leader’s state visit to the country.

  22. “Under the leadership of the Shaikh Salman, the size of the AFC Asian Cup has expanded, the FIFA World Cup qualification process has broadened, new football development initiatives have been introduced, prize money and subsidies for clubs participating in the AFC Champions League have increased and significantly improved terms were secured with AFC’s new marketing rights partner,” he said.

  23. During their talks, men as well as Conte also agreed that the two countries should jointly uphold multilateralism, promote free trade and cement ties among China and the European Union.

  24. Italian economist as well as China expert Michele Geraci hailed the MOU signed among the two countries as “a win-win-win for Italy, the rest of Europe and China”, and said he believes more European countries will follow his country’s lead and sign up to be involved in the initiative.

  25. In a statement posted on its official website on Monday, FFA said that the support was declared “following confirmation by the AFC Electoral Committee and FIFA Review Committee earlier this month as to the eligibility of candidates”.

  26. “We must build on the momentum as well as unleash an strong finishing kick, striving to complete the deal within 2019,” he told leaders of ASEAN as well as South Korea, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and India in the meeting.

  27. ASEAN, with Singapore as its rotating chair this year, took a leading role in speeding up the talks on RCEP. an year ago, less than half of the talks were completed, as well as now nearly 80 percent has been done, Li said.

  28. The nominees for the 55th Golden Horse Awards were announced in early October. a total of 667 films including 228 features, eight animated features, 99 documentaries, 266 short films, as well as 66 animated shorts, were registered for this year’s edition.

  29. Leaders at the meeting expressed a strong will to reach the deal as soon as possible, which will send an strong signal on preserving multilateralism and free trade and to boost economic growth and globalization.

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ক্ষুদ্র ব্যবসা: সুবিধা, অসুবিধা ও সাফল্যের কারণ

টেটরিস এফেক্টঃ সংজ্ঞা ও সংক্ষিপ্ত বর্ণনা